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On Lunar New Year’s eve of 2020, an owner of two two-month-old puppies sought advice about her ill puppy with vomiting and mild loose stools. The veterinarian advised that her dog would probably not survive and immediate “hospitalisation” was needed. The puppty was anaemic, and although white cell and platelet counts were normal, he tested positive for canine parvovirus by blood PCR and died two days later. The other puppy was initially well but developed similar symptoms two days later and subsequently also tested positive for parvovirus by PCR. The puppy was “hospitalised” and received intravenous fluids, immunoglobulins, antiviral, antibiotic and symptomatic (antiemetic and antidiarrhoeal) treatments. He recovered in three days. The owner remained well but was concerned about human transmission of parvovirus to pregnant women or children. To aid understanding, management and counselling, a PubMed search was performed using the keywords ‘parvovirus’ and ‘puppies’ and we have identified 13 relevant publications out of the 161 search results. Parvoviruses can infect both animals and humans, and we present a comparison of their characteristics.1–3

Canine parvovirus is a member of species Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 in the genus Protoparvovirus. Parvovirus is spread by contact with infected dog’s faeces. Symptoms include lethargy, severe diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, loss of appetite and dehydration.2 Disease of the myocardium is seen in puppies infected with canine parvovirus 2 between the ages of three and eight weeks.2 The gastrointestinal tract and lymphatic system can be affected leading to vomiting, diarrhoea and immunosuppression.2 It causes a particularly deadly disease among young puppies with about 80% fatality.

Humans can be infected with Parvovirus B19. Parvovirus B19 is a member of species Primate erythroparovirus 1 in the geneus Erythroparovirus, it infects red blood cell precursors and was the first parvovirus shown to cause human disease.3,4 Parvovirus in human adults is usually asymptomatic.   Other manifestations can include mild respiratory tract illness, polyarthropathy syndrome and transient aplastic crisis.5   Paediatricians are familiar with parvovirus infections in children as it may manifest with visible effects, such as fifth disease (erythema infectiosum or ‘slapped-cheek’); petechial, papular-purpuric gloves-and-socks syndrome (PPGSS), and rarely aplastic anaemia.3 Parvovirus infection may affect 1-–5% of pregnant women.6 It is associated with severe foetal anaemia, which can lead to hydrops fetalis and may result in miscarriage or stillbirth.3 The risk of foetal loss before 20 weeks’ gestation is 14.8% and falls to 2.3% after 20 weeks’ gestation.6

There is no evidence of human transmission of canine or feline parvovirus.1–3 Parvovirus B19 only infects humans; dogs and cats cannot get parvovirus B19 from an infected person. While pet dogs and cats can be vaccinated against canine parvovirus, there are no approved vaccine for humans against the parvovirus B19. Parvoviruses are resistant to most household disinfectants; but household bleach containing sodium hypochlorite are shown to be effective at one in 30 dilution with a contact time of at least 10 minutes.7,8 Pet keepers can rest assured that there is no evidence that canine parvovirus can affect humans.

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Kam Lun Hon, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The Hong Kong Children’s Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China; Karen Ka Yan Leung, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The Hong Kong Children’s Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Acknowledgements

Correspondence

Kam Lun Ellis Hon, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The Hong Kong Children’s Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Correspondence Email

ehon@hotmail.com

Competing Interests

Nil.

1. Neu N, Duchon J, Zachariah P. TORCH infections. Clin Perinatol. 2015; 42(1):77–103.

2. Pereira GQ, Gomes LA, Santos IS, Alfieri AF, Weese JS, Costa MC. Fecal microbiota transplantation in puppies with canine parvovirus infection. J Vet Intern Med. 2018 Mar; 32(2):707–11.

3. Qiu J, Söderlund-Venermo M, Young NS. Human parvoviruses. Vol. 30, Clinical Microbiology Reviews. American Society for Microbiology; 2017:43–113.

4. Servey JT, Reamy BV, Hodge J. Clinical presentations of parvovirus B19 infection. Am Fam Physician. 2007 Feb; 75(3).

5. Kimberlin D, Long S, Brady M, Jackson M. Human Parechovirus Infections. In: Red Book 2018: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 2018:602–6.

6. Giorgio E, De Oronzo MA, Iozza I, Di Natale A, Cianci S, Garofalo G, et al. Parvovirus B19 during pregnancy: a review. J Prenat Med [Internet]. 2010 Oct [cited 2020 May 23]; 4(4):63–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22439064

7. Cavalli A, Marinaro M, Desario C, Corrente M, Camero M, Buonavoglia C. In vitro virucidal activity of sodium hypochlorite against canine parvovirus type 2. Epidemiol Infect. 2018; 146(15):2010–3.

8. Greene C, Decaro N. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. Greene C, editor. Elsevier Saunders; 2012:67–80.

Contact diana@nzma.org.nz
for the PDF of this article

View Article PDF

On Lunar New Year’s eve of 2020, an owner of two two-month-old puppies sought advice about her ill puppy with vomiting and mild loose stools. The veterinarian advised that her dog would probably not survive and immediate “hospitalisation” was needed. The puppty was anaemic, and although white cell and platelet counts were normal, he tested positive for canine parvovirus by blood PCR and died two days later. The other puppy was initially well but developed similar symptoms two days later and subsequently also tested positive for parvovirus by PCR. The puppy was “hospitalised” and received intravenous fluids, immunoglobulins, antiviral, antibiotic and symptomatic (antiemetic and antidiarrhoeal) treatments. He recovered in three days. The owner remained well but was concerned about human transmission of parvovirus to pregnant women or children. To aid understanding, management and counselling, a PubMed search was performed using the keywords ‘parvovirus’ and ‘puppies’ and we have identified 13 relevant publications out of the 161 search results. Parvoviruses can infect both animals and humans, and we present a comparison of their characteristics.1–3

Canine parvovirus is a member of species Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 in the genus Protoparvovirus. Parvovirus is spread by contact with infected dog’s faeces. Symptoms include lethargy, severe diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, loss of appetite and dehydration.2 Disease of the myocardium is seen in puppies infected with canine parvovirus 2 between the ages of three and eight weeks.2 The gastrointestinal tract and lymphatic system can be affected leading to vomiting, diarrhoea and immunosuppression.2 It causes a particularly deadly disease among young puppies with about 80% fatality.

Humans can be infected with Parvovirus B19. Parvovirus B19 is a member of species Primate erythroparovirus 1 in the geneus Erythroparovirus, it infects red blood cell precursors and was the first parvovirus shown to cause human disease.3,4 Parvovirus in human adults is usually asymptomatic.   Other manifestations can include mild respiratory tract illness, polyarthropathy syndrome and transient aplastic crisis.5   Paediatricians are familiar with parvovirus infections in children as it may manifest with visible effects, such as fifth disease (erythema infectiosum or ‘slapped-cheek’); petechial, papular-purpuric gloves-and-socks syndrome (PPGSS), and rarely aplastic anaemia.3 Parvovirus infection may affect 1-–5% of pregnant women.6 It is associated with severe foetal anaemia, which can lead to hydrops fetalis and may result in miscarriage or stillbirth.3 The risk of foetal loss before 20 weeks’ gestation is 14.8% and falls to 2.3% after 20 weeks’ gestation.6

There is no evidence of human transmission of canine or feline parvovirus.1–3 Parvovirus B19 only infects humans; dogs and cats cannot get parvovirus B19 from an infected person. While pet dogs and cats can be vaccinated against canine parvovirus, there are no approved vaccine for humans against the parvovirus B19. Parvoviruses are resistant to most household disinfectants; but household bleach containing sodium hypochlorite are shown to be effective at one in 30 dilution with a contact time of at least 10 minutes.7,8 Pet keepers can rest assured that there is no evidence that canine parvovirus can affect humans.

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Kam Lun Hon, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The Hong Kong Children’s Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China; Karen Ka Yan Leung, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The Hong Kong Children’s Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Acknowledgements

Correspondence

Kam Lun Ellis Hon, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The Hong Kong Children’s Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Correspondence Email

ehon@hotmail.com

Competing Interests

Nil.

1. Neu N, Duchon J, Zachariah P. TORCH infections. Clin Perinatol. 2015; 42(1):77–103.

2. Pereira GQ, Gomes LA, Santos IS, Alfieri AF, Weese JS, Costa MC. Fecal microbiota transplantation in puppies with canine parvovirus infection. J Vet Intern Med. 2018 Mar; 32(2):707–11.

3. Qiu J, Söderlund-Venermo M, Young NS. Human parvoviruses. Vol. 30, Clinical Microbiology Reviews. American Society for Microbiology; 2017:43–113.

4. Servey JT, Reamy BV, Hodge J. Clinical presentations of parvovirus B19 infection. Am Fam Physician. 2007 Feb; 75(3).

5. Kimberlin D, Long S, Brady M, Jackson M. Human Parechovirus Infections. In: Red Book 2018: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 2018:602–6.

6. Giorgio E, De Oronzo MA, Iozza I, Di Natale A, Cianci S, Garofalo G, et al. Parvovirus B19 during pregnancy: a review. J Prenat Med [Internet]. 2010 Oct [cited 2020 May 23]; 4(4):63–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22439064

7. Cavalli A, Marinaro M, Desario C, Corrente M, Camero M, Buonavoglia C. In vitro virucidal activity of sodium hypochlorite against canine parvovirus type 2. Epidemiol Infect. 2018; 146(15):2010–3.

8. Greene C, Decaro N. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. Greene C, editor. Elsevier Saunders; 2012:67–80.

Contact diana@nzma.org.nz
for the PDF of this article

View Article PDF

On Lunar New Year’s eve of 2020, an owner of two two-month-old puppies sought advice about her ill puppy with vomiting and mild loose stools. The veterinarian advised that her dog would probably not survive and immediate “hospitalisation” was needed. The puppty was anaemic, and although white cell and platelet counts were normal, he tested positive for canine parvovirus by blood PCR and died two days later. The other puppy was initially well but developed similar symptoms two days later and subsequently also tested positive for parvovirus by PCR. The puppy was “hospitalised” and received intravenous fluids, immunoglobulins, antiviral, antibiotic and symptomatic (antiemetic and antidiarrhoeal) treatments. He recovered in three days. The owner remained well but was concerned about human transmission of parvovirus to pregnant women or children. To aid understanding, management and counselling, a PubMed search was performed using the keywords ‘parvovirus’ and ‘puppies’ and we have identified 13 relevant publications out of the 161 search results. Parvoviruses can infect both animals and humans, and we present a comparison of their characteristics.1–3

Canine parvovirus is a member of species Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 in the genus Protoparvovirus. Parvovirus is spread by contact with infected dog’s faeces. Symptoms include lethargy, severe diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, loss of appetite and dehydration.2 Disease of the myocardium is seen in puppies infected with canine parvovirus 2 between the ages of three and eight weeks.2 The gastrointestinal tract and lymphatic system can be affected leading to vomiting, diarrhoea and immunosuppression.2 It causes a particularly deadly disease among young puppies with about 80% fatality.

Humans can be infected with Parvovirus B19. Parvovirus B19 is a member of species Primate erythroparovirus 1 in the geneus Erythroparovirus, it infects red blood cell precursors and was the first parvovirus shown to cause human disease.3,4 Parvovirus in human adults is usually asymptomatic.   Other manifestations can include mild respiratory tract illness, polyarthropathy syndrome and transient aplastic crisis.5   Paediatricians are familiar with parvovirus infections in children as it may manifest with visible effects, such as fifth disease (erythema infectiosum or ‘slapped-cheek’); petechial, papular-purpuric gloves-and-socks syndrome (PPGSS), and rarely aplastic anaemia.3 Parvovirus infection may affect 1-–5% of pregnant women.6 It is associated with severe foetal anaemia, which can lead to hydrops fetalis and may result in miscarriage or stillbirth.3 The risk of foetal loss before 20 weeks’ gestation is 14.8% and falls to 2.3% after 20 weeks’ gestation.6

There is no evidence of human transmission of canine or feline parvovirus.1–3 Parvovirus B19 only infects humans; dogs and cats cannot get parvovirus B19 from an infected person. While pet dogs and cats can be vaccinated against canine parvovirus, there are no approved vaccine for humans against the parvovirus B19. Parvoviruses are resistant to most household disinfectants; but household bleach containing sodium hypochlorite are shown to be effective at one in 30 dilution with a contact time of at least 10 minutes.7,8 Pet keepers can rest assured that there is no evidence that canine parvovirus can affect humans.

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Kam Lun Hon, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The Hong Kong Children’s Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China; Karen Ka Yan Leung, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The Hong Kong Children’s Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Acknowledgements

Correspondence

Kam Lun Ellis Hon, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The Hong Kong Children’s Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Correspondence Email

ehon@hotmail.com

Competing Interests

Nil.

1. Neu N, Duchon J, Zachariah P. TORCH infections. Clin Perinatol. 2015; 42(1):77–103.

2. Pereira GQ, Gomes LA, Santos IS, Alfieri AF, Weese JS, Costa MC. Fecal microbiota transplantation in puppies with canine parvovirus infection. J Vet Intern Med. 2018 Mar; 32(2):707–11.

3. Qiu J, Söderlund-Venermo M, Young NS. Human parvoviruses. Vol. 30, Clinical Microbiology Reviews. American Society for Microbiology; 2017:43–113.

4. Servey JT, Reamy BV, Hodge J. Clinical presentations of parvovirus B19 infection. Am Fam Physician. 2007 Feb; 75(3).

5. Kimberlin D, Long S, Brady M, Jackson M. Human Parechovirus Infections. In: Red Book 2018: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 2018:602–6.

6. Giorgio E, De Oronzo MA, Iozza I, Di Natale A, Cianci S, Garofalo G, et al. Parvovirus B19 during pregnancy: a review. J Prenat Med [Internet]. 2010 Oct [cited 2020 May 23]; 4(4):63–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22439064

7. Cavalli A, Marinaro M, Desario C, Corrente M, Camero M, Buonavoglia C. In vitro virucidal activity of sodium hypochlorite against canine parvovirus type 2. Epidemiol Infect. 2018; 146(15):2010–3.

8. Greene C, Decaro N. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. Greene C, editor. Elsevier Saunders; 2012:67–80.

Contact diana@nzma.org.nz
for the PDF of this article

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