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Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a preventable autoimmune response to group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection.[[1]] In an estimated 60% of ARF cases, carditis progresses to chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and permanent heart valve damage.[[2]] Unless treated with intramuscular injections of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) every 28 days for a minimum of 10 years, ARF patients are likely to experience worsening cardiac damage and increasing chances of heart failure, stroke and early death.[[3]]

ARF and RHD have all but disappeared from high-income countries. Yet here in Aotearoa New Zealand they remain an alarming and inequitable cause of preventable suffering and death for Māori and Pacific peoples. Over the 2000–2018 period, Pacific children (5–14 years of age) were 80 times more likely, and Māori children were 36 times more likely, to develop ARF compared with European/other children (based on initial ARF hospitalisations).[[4]] The ethnic inequity of distribution continues to drive elevated rates of RHD and premature death across the lifespans of Māori and Pacific peoples.

In April 2018, member states of the World Health Organization unanimously adopted the Global Resolution (A71/25) on Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease[[5]] (the Resolution), which is a call for national, regional and global actions to prevent and control ARF and RHD.[[6]] The New Zealand Ministry of Health were world leaders in this achievement, initiating the drafting process to develop the Resolution and setting out the case for taking action. However, despite this global success and a 2020 pre-election promise for a national ARF/RHD patient register, the New Zealand government has not yet taken action to fund or implement such a register that could help monitor and reduce ARF/RHD.

By supporting the health workforce to maximise the likelihood of adherence with long-term antibiotic therapy,[[7,8]] patient registers are instrumental in helping to organise the medical care of patients with ARF/RHD.[[7,8]] Registers facilitate monitoring of disease burden and progression, providing epidemiological data that can be used for planning prevention and control programmes.[[9,10]] The World Heart Federation (an association of international heart foundations and medical societies) recommend the use of comprehensive register-based ARF/RHD control programmes, and the New Zealand ARF/RHD sector have called for a national register numerous times over the last two decades.[[11–16]]

Pū Manawa, a recently formed, sector-wide network of health practitioners, researchers and key stakeholders, including ARF/RHD patients, whānau and non-governmental organisations, is advocating for the immediate establishment of a long-overdue national ARF/RHD register as an important step towards disease control and the reduction of ethnic inequities in New Zealand. The inequitable rates of ARF and RHD in Aotearoa are shameful. They clearly breach of te Tiriti o Waitangi and demand a strong government response. There is an urgent need for leadership, coordination and an adequately resourced national strategy for the prevention and control of ARF/RHD. As a core component of such a strategy, an immediate action that the Government can take is to support and fund the implementation of the national ARF/RHD register as promised.

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Julie Bennett: Senior Research Fellow, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Anneka Anderson: Senior Lecturer, Te Kupenga Hauora Māori, University of Auckland, Auckland. National Hauora Coalition, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Malakai ‘Ofanoa: Senior Lecturer, Department of Pacific Health, University of Auckland, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Philippa Anderson: Public Health Physician, Counties Manakau District Health Board, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Michael G Baker: Professor of Public Health, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Rachel Brown: Leader, Service Delivery, National Hauora Coalition, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Gerry Devlin: Medical Director Heart Foundation, Heart Foundation of New Zealand, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Kyle Eggleton: Senior Lecturer, Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care University of Auckland, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Matire Harwood: Associate Professor, Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care University of Auckland, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Raweri McKree Jansen: Clinical Director and Leader, Service Design and Delivery, National Hauora Coalition, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Donna Kielar: Nurse Advisor, National Hauora Coalition, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. John Malcolm: Paediatrician Emeritus, Bay of Plenty District Health Board, Whakatāne, Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Nicole J Moreland: Associate Professor, Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Neil Poskitt: General Practitioner, Midland Child Health Action Group, Rotorua; Rotorua Area Primary Health Services, Rotorua; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Dianne Sika-Paotonu: Senior Lecturer, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Rachel Webb: Senior Lecturer, Department of Paediatrics, University of Auckland and Paediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist, KidzFirst, Counties Manukau District Health Board and Starship Children’s Hospital, Auckland District Health Board; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Nigel Wilson: Paediatric Cardiologist, Starship Green Lane Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Service, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa.

Acknowledgements

This letter is support by Pū Manawa Aotearoa, the National Heart Foundation of New Zealand, Cure Kids and the National Hauora Coalition.

Correspondence

Julie Bennett, Senior Research Fellow Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington, Pū Manawa Aotearoa, 23a Mein Street, Newtown, Wellington 6021, 021321993

Correspondence Email

Julie.bennett@otago.ac.nz

Competing Interests

Nil.

1. McDonald M, Currie, B.J., and Carapetis, J. Acute Rheumatic Fever-a chink in the chain that links the heart to the throat. Lancet Infect Dis 2004;4:240-5.

2. Carapetis JR, Steer AC, Mulholland EK, Weber M. The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2005;5:685-94.

3. Heart Foundation of New Zealand. New Zealand Guidelines for Rheumatic Fever: Diagnosis, Management and Secondary Prevention of Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease2014.

4. Bennett J, Zhang J, Leung W, et al. Rising Ethnic Inequalities in Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease, New Zealand, 2000-2018. Emerg Infect Dis 2021;27:36-46.

5. World Health Organization. Rheumatic fever ad theumatic heart disease. https://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA71/A71_25-en.pdf?ua=1

6. White A. WHO Resolution on rheumatic heart disease. European Heart Journal 2018;39:4233.

7. McDonald M, Brown A, Noonan S, Carapetis JR. Preventing recurrent rheumatic fever: the role of register based programmes. Heart 2005;91:1131-3.

8. Strasser T, Dondog N, El Kholy A, et al. The community control of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: report of a WHO international cooperative project. Bull World Health Organ 1981;59:285-94.

9. World Health Organization. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 2004;923:1-122, back cover.

10. Katzenellenbogen JM, Bond-Smith D, Seth RJ, et al. Contemporary Incidence and Prevalence of Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease in Australia Using Linked Data: The Case for Policy Change. J Am Heart Assoc 2020;9:e016851.

11. Remenyi B, Carapetis J, Wyber R, Taubert K, Mayosi BM. Position statement of the World Heart Federation on the prevention and control of rheumatic heart disease. Nat Rev Cardiol 2013;10:284-92.

12. Thornley C, McNicolas A, Baker M, Lennon D. Rheumatic Fever Registers in New Zealand. NZ Public Health Report: NZ Public Health Report; 2001; 8:41-44.

13. Moxon TA, Reed P, Jelleyman T, et al. Is a rheumatic fever register the best surveillance tool to evaluate rheumatic fever control in the Auckland region? The New Zealand medical journal 2017;130:48-62.

14. Jackson C, Lennon D. Rheumatic fever register scoping the development of a national web-based rheumatic fever register. Auckland: Ministry of Health; 2009.

15. Oliver J, Baker MG, Pierse N, Carapetis J. Comparison of approaches to rheumatic fever surveillance across Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. J Paediatr Child Health 2015;51:1071-7.

16. Oliver J, Pierse N, Baker MG. Improving rheumatic fever surveillance in New Zealand: results of a surveillance sector review. BMC Public Health 2014;14:528.

For the PDF of this article,
contact nzmj@nzma.org.nz

View Article PDF

Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a preventable autoimmune response to group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection.[[1]] In an estimated 60% of ARF cases, carditis progresses to chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and permanent heart valve damage.[[2]] Unless treated with intramuscular injections of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) every 28 days for a minimum of 10 years, ARF patients are likely to experience worsening cardiac damage and increasing chances of heart failure, stroke and early death.[[3]]

ARF and RHD have all but disappeared from high-income countries. Yet here in Aotearoa New Zealand they remain an alarming and inequitable cause of preventable suffering and death for Māori and Pacific peoples. Over the 2000–2018 period, Pacific children (5–14 years of age) were 80 times more likely, and Māori children were 36 times more likely, to develop ARF compared with European/other children (based on initial ARF hospitalisations).[[4]] The ethnic inequity of distribution continues to drive elevated rates of RHD and premature death across the lifespans of Māori and Pacific peoples.

In April 2018, member states of the World Health Organization unanimously adopted the Global Resolution (A71/25) on Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease[[5]] (the Resolution), which is a call for national, regional and global actions to prevent and control ARF and RHD.[[6]] The New Zealand Ministry of Health were world leaders in this achievement, initiating the drafting process to develop the Resolution and setting out the case for taking action. However, despite this global success and a 2020 pre-election promise for a national ARF/RHD patient register, the New Zealand government has not yet taken action to fund or implement such a register that could help monitor and reduce ARF/RHD.

By supporting the health workforce to maximise the likelihood of adherence with long-term antibiotic therapy,[[7,8]] patient registers are instrumental in helping to organise the medical care of patients with ARF/RHD.[[7,8]] Registers facilitate monitoring of disease burden and progression, providing epidemiological data that can be used for planning prevention and control programmes.[[9,10]] The World Heart Federation (an association of international heart foundations and medical societies) recommend the use of comprehensive register-based ARF/RHD control programmes, and the New Zealand ARF/RHD sector have called for a national register numerous times over the last two decades.[[11–16]]

Pū Manawa, a recently formed, sector-wide network of health practitioners, researchers and key stakeholders, including ARF/RHD patients, whānau and non-governmental organisations, is advocating for the immediate establishment of a long-overdue national ARF/RHD register as an important step towards disease control and the reduction of ethnic inequities in New Zealand. The inequitable rates of ARF and RHD in Aotearoa are shameful. They clearly breach of te Tiriti o Waitangi and demand a strong government response. There is an urgent need for leadership, coordination and an adequately resourced national strategy for the prevention and control of ARF/RHD. As a core component of such a strategy, an immediate action that the Government can take is to support and fund the implementation of the national ARF/RHD register as promised.

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Julie Bennett: Senior Research Fellow, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Anneka Anderson: Senior Lecturer, Te Kupenga Hauora Māori, University of Auckland, Auckland. National Hauora Coalition, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Malakai ‘Ofanoa: Senior Lecturer, Department of Pacific Health, University of Auckland, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Philippa Anderson: Public Health Physician, Counties Manakau District Health Board, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Michael G Baker: Professor of Public Health, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Rachel Brown: Leader, Service Delivery, National Hauora Coalition, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Gerry Devlin: Medical Director Heart Foundation, Heart Foundation of New Zealand, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Kyle Eggleton: Senior Lecturer, Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care University of Auckland, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Matire Harwood: Associate Professor, Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care University of Auckland, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Raweri McKree Jansen: Clinical Director and Leader, Service Design and Delivery, National Hauora Coalition, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Donna Kielar: Nurse Advisor, National Hauora Coalition, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. John Malcolm: Paediatrician Emeritus, Bay of Plenty District Health Board, Whakatāne, Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Nicole J Moreland: Associate Professor, Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Neil Poskitt: General Practitioner, Midland Child Health Action Group, Rotorua; Rotorua Area Primary Health Services, Rotorua; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Dianne Sika-Paotonu: Senior Lecturer, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Rachel Webb: Senior Lecturer, Department of Paediatrics, University of Auckland and Paediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist, KidzFirst, Counties Manukau District Health Board and Starship Children’s Hospital, Auckland District Health Board; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Nigel Wilson: Paediatric Cardiologist, Starship Green Lane Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Service, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa.

Acknowledgements

This letter is support by Pū Manawa Aotearoa, the National Heart Foundation of New Zealand, Cure Kids and the National Hauora Coalition.

Correspondence

Julie Bennett, Senior Research Fellow Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington, Pū Manawa Aotearoa, 23a Mein Street, Newtown, Wellington 6021, 021321993

Correspondence Email

Julie.bennett@otago.ac.nz

Competing Interests

Nil.

1. McDonald M, Currie, B.J., and Carapetis, J. Acute Rheumatic Fever-a chink in the chain that links the heart to the throat. Lancet Infect Dis 2004;4:240-5.

2. Carapetis JR, Steer AC, Mulholland EK, Weber M. The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2005;5:685-94.

3. Heart Foundation of New Zealand. New Zealand Guidelines for Rheumatic Fever: Diagnosis, Management and Secondary Prevention of Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease2014.

4. Bennett J, Zhang J, Leung W, et al. Rising Ethnic Inequalities in Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease, New Zealand, 2000-2018. Emerg Infect Dis 2021;27:36-46.

5. World Health Organization. Rheumatic fever ad theumatic heart disease. https://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA71/A71_25-en.pdf?ua=1

6. White A. WHO Resolution on rheumatic heart disease. European Heart Journal 2018;39:4233.

7. McDonald M, Brown A, Noonan S, Carapetis JR. Preventing recurrent rheumatic fever: the role of register based programmes. Heart 2005;91:1131-3.

8. Strasser T, Dondog N, El Kholy A, et al. The community control of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: report of a WHO international cooperative project. Bull World Health Organ 1981;59:285-94.

9. World Health Organization. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 2004;923:1-122, back cover.

10. Katzenellenbogen JM, Bond-Smith D, Seth RJ, et al. Contemporary Incidence and Prevalence of Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease in Australia Using Linked Data: The Case for Policy Change. J Am Heart Assoc 2020;9:e016851.

11. Remenyi B, Carapetis J, Wyber R, Taubert K, Mayosi BM. Position statement of the World Heart Federation on the prevention and control of rheumatic heart disease. Nat Rev Cardiol 2013;10:284-92.

12. Thornley C, McNicolas A, Baker M, Lennon D. Rheumatic Fever Registers in New Zealand. NZ Public Health Report: NZ Public Health Report; 2001; 8:41-44.

13. Moxon TA, Reed P, Jelleyman T, et al. Is a rheumatic fever register the best surveillance tool to evaluate rheumatic fever control in the Auckland region? The New Zealand medical journal 2017;130:48-62.

14. Jackson C, Lennon D. Rheumatic fever register scoping the development of a national web-based rheumatic fever register. Auckland: Ministry of Health; 2009.

15. Oliver J, Baker MG, Pierse N, Carapetis J. Comparison of approaches to rheumatic fever surveillance across Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. J Paediatr Child Health 2015;51:1071-7.

16. Oliver J, Pierse N, Baker MG. Improving rheumatic fever surveillance in New Zealand: results of a surveillance sector review. BMC Public Health 2014;14:528.

For the PDF of this article,
contact nzmj@nzma.org.nz

View Article PDF

Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a preventable autoimmune response to group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection.[[1]] In an estimated 60% of ARF cases, carditis progresses to chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and permanent heart valve damage.[[2]] Unless treated with intramuscular injections of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) every 28 days for a minimum of 10 years, ARF patients are likely to experience worsening cardiac damage and increasing chances of heart failure, stroke and early death.[[3]]

ARF and RHD have all but disappeared from high-income countries. Yet here in Aotearoa New Zealand they remain an alarming and inequitable cause of preventable suffering and death for Māori and Pacific peoples. Over the 2000–2018 period, Pacific children (5–14 years of age) were 80 times more likely, and Māori children were 36 times more likely, to develop ARF compared with European/other children (based on initial ARF hospitalisations).[[4]] The ethnic inequity of distribution continues to drive elevated rates of RHD and premature death across the lifespans of Māori and Pacific peoples.

In April 2018, member states of the World Health Organization unanimously adopted the Global Resolution (A71/25) on Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease[[5]] (the Resolution), which is a call for national, regional and global actions to prevent and control ARF and RHD.[[6]] The New Zealand Ministry of Health were world leaders in this achievement, initiating the drafting process to develop the Resolution and setting out the case for taking action. However, despite this global success and a 2020 pre-election promise for a national ARF/RHD patient register, the New Zealand government has not yet taken action to fund or implement such a register that could help monitor and reduce ARF/RHD.

By supporting the health workforce to maximise the likelihood of adherence with long-term antibiotic therapy,[[7,8]] patient registers are instrumental in helping to organise the medical care of patients with ARF/RHD.[[7,8]] Registers facilitate monitoring of disease burden and progression, providing epidemiological data that can be used for planning prevention and control programmes.[[9,10]] The World Heart Federation (an association of international heart foundations and medical societies) recommend the use of comprehensive register-based ARF/RHD control programmes, and the New Zealand ARF/RHD sector have called for a national register numerous times over the last two decades.[[11–16]]

Pū Manawa, a recently formed, sector-wide network of health practitioners, researchers and key stakeholders, including ARF/RHD patients, whānau and non-governmental organisations, is advocating for the immediate establishment of a long-overdue national ARF/RHD register as an important step towards disease control and the reduction of ethnic inequities in New Zealand. The inequitable rates of ARF and RHD in Aotearoa are shameful. They clearly breach of te Tiriti o Waitangi and demand a strong government response. There is an urgent need for leadership, coordination and an adequately resourced national strategy for the prevention and control of ARF/RHD. As a core component of such a strategy, an immediate action that the Government can take is to support and fund the implementation of the national ARF/RHD register as promised.

Summary

Abstract

Aim

Method

Results

Conclusion

Author Information

Julie Bennett: Senior Research Fellow, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Anneka Anderson: Senior Lecturer, Te Kupenga Hauora Māori, University of Auckland, Auckland. National Hauora Coalition, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Malakai ‘Ofanoa: Senior Lecturer, Department of Pacific Health, University of Auckland, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Philippa Anderson: Public Health Physician, Counties Manakau District Health Board, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Michael G Baker: Professor of Public Health, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Rachel Brown: Leader, Service Delivery, National Hauora Coalition, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Gerry Devlin: Medical Director Heart Foundation, Heart Foundation of New Zealand, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Kyle Eggleton: Senior Lecturer, Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care University of Auckland, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Matire Harwood: Associate Professor, Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care University of Auckland, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Raweri McKree Jansen: Clinical Director and Leader, Service Design and Delivery, National Hauora Coalition, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Donna Kielar: Nurse Advisor, National Hauora Coalition, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. John Malcolm: Paediatrician Emeritus, Bay of Plenty District Health Board, Whakatāne, Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Nicole J Moreland: Associate Professor, Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Neil Poskitt: General Practitioner, Midland Child Health Action Group, Rotorua; Rotorua Area Primary Health Services, Rotorua; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Dianne Sika-Paotonu: Senior Lecturer, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Rachel Webb: Senior Lecturer, Department of Paediatrics, University of Auckland and Paediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist, KidzFirst, Counties Manukau District Health Board and Starship Children’s Hospital, Auckland District Health Board; Pū Manawa Aotearoa. Nigel Wilson: Paediatric Cardiologist, Starship Green Lane Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Service, Auckland; Pū Manawa Aotearoa.

Acknowledgements

This letter is support by Pū Manawa Aotearoa, the National Heart Foundation of New Zealand, Cure Kids and the National Hauora Coalition.

Correspondence

Julie Bennett, Senior Research Fellow Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington, Pū Manawa Aotearoa, 23a Mein Street, Newtown, Wellington 6021, 021321993

Correspondence Email

Julie.bennett@otago.ac.nz

Competing Interests

Nil.

1. McDonald M, Currie, B.J., and Carapetis, J. Acute Rheumatic Fever-a chink in the chain that links the heart to the throat. Lancet Infect Dis 2004;4:240-5.

2. Carapetis JR, Steer AC, Mulholland EK, Weber M. The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2005;5:685-94.

3. Heart Foundation of New Zealand. New Zealand Guidelines for Rheumatic Fever: Diagnosis, Management and Secondary Prevention of Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease2014.

4. Bennett J, Zhang J, Leung W, et al. Rising Ethnic Inequalities in Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease, New Zealand, 2000-2018. Emerg Infect Dis 2021;27:36-46.

5. World Health Organization. Rheumatic fever ad theumatic heart disease. https://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA71/A71_25-en.pdf?ua=1

6. White A. WHO Resolution on rheumatic heart disease. European Heart Journal 2018;39:4233.

7. McDonald M, Brown A, Noonan S, Carapetis JR. Preventing recurrent rheumatic fever: the role of register based programmes. Heart 2005;91:1131-3.

8. Strasser T, Dondog N, El Kholy A, et al. The community control of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: report of a WHO international cooperative project. Bull World Health Organ 1981;59:285-94.

9. World Health Organization. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 2004;923:1-122, back cover.

10. Katzenellenbogen JM, Bond-Smith D, Seth RJ, et al. Contemporary Incidence and Prevalence of Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease in Australia Using Linked Data: The Case for Policy Change. J Am Heart Assoc 2020;9:e016851.

11. Remenyi B, Carapetis J, Wyber R, Taubert K, Mayosi BM. Position statement of the World Heart Federation on the prevention and control of rheumatic heart disease. Nat Rev Cardiol 2013;10:284-92.

12. Thornley C, McNicolas A, Baker M, Lennon D. Rheumatic Fever Registers in New Zealand. NZ Public Health Report: NZ Public Health Report; 2001; 8:41-44.

13. Moxon TA, Reed P, Jelleyman T, et al. Is a rheumatic fever register the best surveillance tool to evaluate rheumatic fever control in the Auckland region? The New Zealand medical journal 2017;130:48-62.

14. Jackson C, Lennon D. Rheumatic fever register scoping the development of a national web-based rheumatic fever register. Auckland: Ministry of Health; 2009.

15. Oliver J, Baker MG, Pierse N, Carapetis J. Comparison of approaches to rheumatic fever surveillance across Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. J Paediatr Child Health 2015;51:1071-7.

16. Oliver J, Pierse N, Baker MG. Improving rheumatic fever surveillance in New Zealand: results of a surveillance sector review. BMC Public Health 2014;14:528.

Contact diana@nzma.org.nz
for the PDF of this article

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