7th June 2019, Volume 132 Number 1496

Marie Russell, Deborah Read, Hera Cook

Lead absorption is a notifiable disease under the Health Act 1956 in New Zealand. Lead (Pb) “…is a cumulative toxicant that affects multiple body systems, including the neurologic, hematologic, gastrointestinal,…

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Author Information

Marie Russell, Senior Research Fellow, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington; Deborah Read, Associate Professor, Environmental Health Indicators Programme, Massey University, Wellington; Hera Cook, Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington.

Correspondence

Marie Russell, Department of Public Health, PO Box 7343, Wellington 6242.

Correspondence Email

marie.russell@otago.ac.nz

Competing Interests

Nil.

References

  1. World Health Organization. International Programme on Chemical Safety: Health Impacts of Chemicals: Lead. WHO http://www.who.int/ipcs/assessment/public_health/lead/en/
  2. EHINZ Environmental Health Indicators Programme. Lead absorption notifications in New Zealand. Wellington: Massey University, 2018.
  3. Laidlaw MAS, Filippelli G, Mielke H, et al. Lead exposure at firing ranges—a review. Environ Health. 2017; 16(1):34. doi: 10.1186/s12940-017-0246-0
  4. Buenz EJ. Lead exposure through eating wild game. Am J Med. 129(5):457–58. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.12.022
  5. California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Nonlead ammunition in California 2018 [Available from: http://www.wildlife.ca.gov/hunting/nonlead-ammunition
  6. Fish and Game New Zealand. Non-toxic shot regulations 2019. 2019.
  7. Rooney C. The fate of lead in soils contaminated with lead shot. Lincoln 2002.
  8. MacNicol K. Cows die after grazing on gun club land. Otago Daily Times / Fiordland Advocate 5 September 2014.
  9. George PM, Walmsley TA, Currie D, et al. Lead exposure during recreational use of Small bore rifle ranges. N Z Med J. 1993; 106(965):422–4.
  10. Hayes N. Anti-lead shot mythodology and anti-environmental methodology. Carterton: Hayes & Associates, 2016.
  11. Council of Licensed Firearms Owners (COLFO). Lead Symposium. Wellington: COLFO, 2016.
  12. Arnemo JM, Andersen O, Stokke S, et al. Health and environmental risks from lead-based ammunition: Science versus socio-politics. EcoHealth. 2016; 13(4):618–22. doi: 10.1007/s10393-016-1177-x

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