30th November 2018, Volume 131 Number 1486

Nick Wilson, Osman D Mansoor, Michael G Baker

The international evidence is mixed on there being socio-economic mortality gradients from the 1918 influenza pandemic,1 but in New Zealand no clear socio-economic gradient in mortality rates has been reported…

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Author Information

Nick Wilson, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington; 
Osman D Mansoor, Public Health Physician, Wellington; 
Michael G Baker, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington.

Correspondence

Nick Wilson, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington.

Correspondence Email

nick.wilson@otago.ac.nz

Competing Interests

Nil.

References

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  2. Summers J, Baker M, Wilson N. New Zealand’s experience of the 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic: A systematic review after 100 years. N Z Med J (In press).
  3. Rice G. Black November: The 1918 influenza pandemic in New Zealand. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press, 2005.
  4. Summers JA, Wilson N, Baker MG, Shanks GD. Mortality risk factors for pandemic influenza on New Zealand troop ship, 1918. Emerg Infect Dis 2010; 16:1931–7.
  5. Summers JA, Stanley J, Baker MG, Wilson N. Risk factors for death from pandemic influenza in 1918–1919: a case-control study. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2014; 8:329–38.
  6. Cuff M. The great scourge: Dunedin in the 1918 influenza epidemic [Long Essay, Postgraduate Diploma in History]. Dunedin: University of Otago, 1980.
  7. Bryder L. “Lessons” of the 1918 influenza epidemic in Auckland. N Z J History 1982; 16:97–121.
  8. Bryder L. The 1918 Influenza Epidemic in Auckland. [Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Auckland], 1980.
  9. Wilson N, Clement C, Boyd M, Teng A, Woodward A, Blakely T. The long history of health inequality in New Zealand: occupational class and lifespan in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Aust N Z J Public Health 2018;(E-publication 15 February).
  10. Wilson N, Telfar Barnard L, Summers J, Shanks G, Baker M. Differential mortality by ethnicity in 3 influenza pandemics over a century, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis 2012; 18:71–77.
  11. Sydenstriker E. The Incidence of Influenza among Persons of Different Economic Status during the Epidemic of 1918. Public Health Rep 1931; 46:154–70. http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4579923.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A282dbb104c7b65941be798c97a3ce3ae
  12. Grantz KH, Rane MS, Salje H, Glass GE, Schachterle SE, Cummings DA. Disparities in influenza mortality and transmission related to sociodemographic factors within Chicago in the pandemic of 1918. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016; 113:13839–44.
  13. Mamelund SE. A socially neutral disease? Individual social class, household wealth and mortality from Spanish influenza in two socially contrasting parishes in Kristiania 1918–19. Soc Sci Med 2006; 62:923–40.
  14. Mamelund SE. 1918 pandemic morbidity: The first wave hits the poor, the second wave hits the rich. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2018; 12:307–13.
  15. Statistics New Zealand. Report on the results of a census of the population of the Dominion of New Zealand taken for the night of the 15th October, 1916. http://www3.stats.govt.nz/historic_publications/1916-census/Report%20on%20Results%20of%20Census%201916/1916-report-results-census%20.html?_ga=2.6668146.1932235955.1541614054-1286078767.1541614054#idpreface_1_34

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